(A revisit of space and gravity)



ABSTRACT: 'Em-space and Renewal-at-Pi Cosmology (A revisit of space and gravity)" is a theory that deals with space, gravity and cosmology. It is based upon two principle notions:

The first notion regards space as being made up of energy and therefore, having a corresponding mass to it. The term "em-space" is used to denote this "energy-mass" aspect of space. This energy-mass aspect of em-space is based on: a) the fact that gravity exists as a universal force. The presence of gravity is seen here as the main indication of the energy-mass aspect of em-space; b) the creation of virtual pairs as observed under vacuum conditions of space; and, c) the measured existence of cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR). In this theory, em-space behaves like the interior of a giant even-temperatured oven where the measured isotropic CBR is the blackbody radiation of the fabric of em-space itself. This is contrary to the assumption of the Big Bang theory, where the CBR is viewed as being the remnants of a primordial explosion that took place when the universe began.

This theory views em-space as a self contained and sustained energy-mass system that is oscillatory in nature - expanding and contracting over a very large period of time. The basic structure of the fabric of em-space is unlike that of the matter universe. The fabric of em-space is viewed here as being flexible, stretchable and resilient so that as it expands and stretches, it stores potential energy. Over time, this fabric of em-space has spread throughout its huge volume so thinly that it is not observable.

The second notion proposes that "gravity" did not exist when em-space was created, nor for some time after. In this theory, gravity is an inherent quality of em-space, starting from a value of zero when em-space is created and gradually developing in strength as em-space expands. This view is based on the observed fact that the "universe is expanding" because, if there had been a primordial explosion in conjunction with a full-strength gravity, no matter how big the explosion, the initial, infinitely dense universe would certainly have collapsed unto itself early on, thus preventing any further expansion and consequently, its evolution into its present state. In the proposed theory, the potential for gravitation is embodied in the expanding fabric of em-space and it is the interaction of matter with em-space that allows gravity to display itself. Gravity is the representation of the stored potential energy that has been built up in the fabric of em-space throughout its expansion. As em-space expands, the strength of gravity increases and this theory predicts an annual increase of 3.3447x10-18 dyn.cm 2.g-2 in the Universal Gravitational Constant.

This theory proposes that the present cycle of em-space originated from an energy singularity about 20 billion years ago, not as a result of some sort of explosion, but because of its oscillatory nature. The periodic renewal of em-space is calculated to occur at about every 1000 billion years. With no gravity to hinder it at the outset, em-space was free to expand at the speed of light. It will continue to expand until all of its kinetic energy has been converted to potential energy and stored in its fabric, thereby signalling the end of expansion and the start of contraction.

The matter universe embedded in em-space constitutes only a small percentage (about 1% to 2%) of the total mass of em-space. This "mass" of em-space eliminates the need to find "dark matter" in order to make our universe a closed one. Em-space, with its huge "mass", is the controlling agent of a universe that continuously emerges from a singularity, expands, contracts and finally re-emerges again. Our present universe, which consists of em-space and the embedded matter universe, is only one cycle of this periodic system.

The contraction phase of em-space will end in a pure energy singularity state where its speed of contraction will equal that of light and gravity will be non-existent. In view of this envisioned cyclical nature of em-space, this point along the time axis has been labelled as ¼. As em-space passes through this transition point, one life cycle of em-space ends and a new one begins (Renewal-at-¼).

The presented theory provides alternative views and answers to some of the questions regarding the cosmos such as the birth and the expansion of the universe, the isotropicity of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the formation of the super structure of the universe, Quasars and galaxies.

The full text of this paper was published in Physics Essays, vol. 10, No. 2, June 1997, pages 204 to 247. For further information write to: Physics Essays Publication, c/o ALFT, Inc., 189 Deveault St., Unit No. 7, Hull, PQ J8Z 1S7 Canada. E-mail ALFT@on.infoshare.ca

Polat Kaya

November 10, 1997

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